NetBSD Planet

September 14, 2019

DragonFly BSD Digest In Other BSDs for 2019/09/14

Still a backlog, no matter how much I link.

September 13, 2019

Roy Marples dhcpcd-8.0.6 released

With the following changes:

The last change fixes a potential DoS attack introduced in dhcpcd-8.0.3 when the checksuming code was changed to accomodate variable length IP headers. The commit says since 7.2.0, but I've now decided that's not the case.

Roy Marples dhcpcd-8.0.5 released

With the following changes:

The last change fixes a potential DoS attack introduced in dhcpcd-8.0.3 when the checksuming code was changed to accomodate variable length IP headers. The commit says since 7.2.0, but I've now decided that's not the case.

September 08, 2019

Roy Marples openresolv-3.9.2 released

Minor update with the following changes:

September 06, 2019

DragonFly BSD Digest BSD Now 314: Swap that Space

This week’s BSD Now is up, discussing a bunch of informational topics – including what’s happening with dsynth, how virtual memory works, streaming on NetBSD, and other links.

September 04, 2019

Roy Marples dhcpcd-8.0.4 released

With the following changes:

September 03, 2019

NetBSD Blog LLVM santizers and GDB regression test suite
As NetBSD-9 is branched, I have been asked to finish the LLVM sanitizer integration. This work is now accomplished and with MKLLVM=yes build option (by default off), the distribution will be populated with LLVM files for ASan, TSan, MSan, UBSan, libFuzzer, SafeStack and XRay.

I have also transplanted basesystem GDB patched to my GDB repository and managed to run the GDB regression test-suite.

NetBSD distribution changes

I have enhanced and imported my local MKSANITIZER code that makes whole distribution sanitization possible. Few real bugs were fixed and a number of patches were newly written to reflect the current NetBSD sources state. I have also merged another chunk of the fruits of the GSoC-2018 project with fuzzing the userland (by [email protected]).

The following changes were committed to the sources:

Almost all of the mentioned commits were backported to NetBSD-9 and will land 9.0.

As a demo, I have crafted a writing on combining RUMPKERNEL, MKSANITIZER with the honggfuzz fuzzer: Rumpkernel assisted fuzzing of the NetBSD file system kernel code in userland.


I've merged NetBSD distribution downstream GDB patches into my local GDB tree and executed the regression tests (check-gdb):

Test run by kamil on Mon Sep  2 12:36:03 2019
Native configuration is x86_64-unknown-netbsd9.99

                === gdb tests ===

Schedule of variations:

                === gdb Summary ===

# of expected passes            54591
# of unexpected failures        3267
# of expected failures          35
# of unknown successes          3
# of known failures             59
# of unresolved testcases       29
# of untested testcases         141
# of unsupported tests          399

Full log is here.

This means that there are a lot of more tests and known failures than in 2017-09-05:

$ uname -a
NetBSD chieftec 8.99.2 NetBSD 8.99.2 (GENERIC) #0: Sat Sep  2 22:55:29 CEST 2017  [email protected]:/public/netbsd-root/sys/arch/amd64/compile/GENERIC amd64

Test run by kamil on Tue Sep  5 17:06:28 2017
Native configuration is x86_64--netbsd

                === gdb tests ===

Schedule of variations:

                === gdb Summary ===

# of expected passes            16453
# of unexpected failures        483
# of expected failures          9
# of known failures             28
# of unresolved testcases       17
# of untested testcases         41
# of unsupported tests          25

There are actually some regressions and a set of tests that fails probably due to environment differences like lack of gfortran at hand.

Full log is here

GSoC Mentoring

The Google Summer of Code programme reached the end. My mentees wrote successfully their final reports:

I'm also mentoring the AFL+KCOV work by Maciej Grochowski. Maciej will visit EuroBSDCon-2019 and speak about his work.

Add methods for setting and getting the thread name

I've reached out to the people from standards bodies and I'm working on defining the standard approach for setting and getting the thread name. I have received a proper ID of my proposal and I'm now supposted to submit the text in either PDF or HTML format.

This change will allow to manage the thread name with an uniform interface on all comforming platforms.

Plan for the next milestone

Keep enhancing GDB support. Keep detecting ptrace(2) bugs and addressing them.

This work was sponsored by The NetBSD Foundation.

The NetBSD Foundation is a non-profit organization and welcomes any donations to help us continue funding projects and services to the open-source community. Please consider visiting the following URL to chip in what you can:

September 01, 2019 New Developer in August 2019

August 31, 2019

DragonFly BSD Digest In Other BSDs for 2019/08/31

I have a number of BSD user group notifications here – please tell me if you have a group and I’m not regularly posting about it.

August 27, 2019

NetBSD Blog Enchancing Syzkaller Support for NetBSD, Part 3

Prepared by Siddharth Muralee(@R3x) as a part of Google Summer of Code’19

As a part of Google Summer of Code’19, I am working on improving the support for Syzkaller kernel fuzzer. Syzkaller is an unsupervised coverage-guided kernel fuzzer, that supports a variety of operating systems including NetBSD.

You can take a look through the first report to see the initial changes that we made and you can look at the second report to read about the initial support we added for fuzzing the network stack.

This report details the work done during the final coding period where the target was to improve the support for fuzzing the filesystem stack.

Filesystem fuzzing is a relatively less explored area. Syzkaller itself only has filesystem fuzzing support for Linux.

Analysis of the existing Linux setup

Filesystems are more complex fuzzing target than standalone system calls. To fuzz Filesystems we do have a standard operation like mount which comes with system call vector and an additional binary image of the filesystem itself. While normal syscalls generally have a size of a few bytes, sizes of real world Filesystem images is in order of Gigabytes or larger, however for fuzzing minimal size can be used which is in order of KB-MB. Since syzkaller uses a technique called as mutational fuzzing - where it mutates random parts of the input (according to specified guidelines), having a large input size causes delay due to higher I/O time.

Syzkaller deals with large images by disassembling them to non-zero chunks of the filesystem image. Syzkaller extracts the non-zero chunks and their offsets and stores it as separate segments and just before execution it writes all the chunks into the corresponding offsets - generating back the new/modified image.

Porting it to NetBSD

As an initial step towards filesystem fuzzing we decided to port the existing Linux approach of creating random segments to NetBSD. There are a few differences between the mounting process in both the operating systems - the most significant of them being the difference in the arguments to mount(2).


int mount(const char *source, const char *target, const char *filesystemtype, unsigned long mountflags, const void *data);

The data argument is interpreted by the different filesystems. Typically it is a string of comma-separated options understood by this filesystem. mount(8) - shows possible arguments for each of the filesystem.

possible options for xfs filesystem in linux :

    wsync, noalign, swalloc, nouuid, mtpt, grpid, nogrpid, bsdgroups, 
    sysvgroups,norecovery, inode64, inode32, ikeep, noikeep,
    largeio, nolargeio, attr2, noattr2, filestreams, quota,
    noquota, lazytime, nolazytime, usrquota, grpquota, prjquota,
    uquota, gquota, pquota, uqnoenforce, gqnoenforce, pqnoenforce,
    qnoenforce, discard, nodiscard, dax, barrier, nobarrier, logbufs,
    biosize, sunit, swidth, logbsize, allocsize, logdev, rtdev


Int mount(const char *type, const char *dir, int flags, void *data, size_t data_len);

The argument data describes the file system object to be mounted, and is data_len bytes long. data is a pointer to a structure that contains the type specific arguments to mount.

For FFS (one of the most common filesystems for NetBSD) - the arguments look like :

struct ufs_args {
        char      *fspec;   /* block special file to mount */

Currently, we have a pseudo syscall syz_mount_image which does the job of writing the mutated chunks of the filesystem into a file based on their offsets and later configuring the loop device using vndconfig(8) and mounting the filesystem image using mount(8).

Analysis of the current approach

One way to create mountable filesystems is to convert an existing filesystem image into a syzkaller pseudo grammar representation and then add it to the corpus so that syzkaller uses it for mutation and we have a proper image.

Some of the noted issues with syzkaller approach (as noted in "Fuzzing File Systems via Two-Dimensional Input Space Exploration) :

  • Lack of metadata knowledge - This may lead to corruption of filesystem specific aspects such as checksums.
  • Lack of Context awareness - Syzkaller isn't aware of the status of the filesystem image after a few operations are performed on it.
  • Steps Forward

    We also spent some time researching possible options to solve the existing issues and developing an approach that would give us better results.

    Image mutator approach

    One possible way forward is to actually use a seed image (a working filesystem image) and write a mutator which would be aware of all the metadata in the image. The mutator should be also be able to recreate metadata components such as the checksum so that the image is mountable.

    An existing implementation of such a mutator is JANUS which is a filesystem mutator written for Linux with inspiration from fsck.

    Grammar based approach

    Syzkaller uses a pseudo-formal grammar for representing arguments to syscalls. This grammar can also be modified to actually be able to properly generate filesystem images.

    Writing grammar to represent a filesystem image is quite a daunting task and we are not yet sure if it is possible but it is the approach that we have planned to take up as of now.

    Proper documentation detailing the structure of a filesystem image is rather scarce which has led me to actually go through filesystem code to figure out the type, uses and limits of a certain filesystem image. This data then has to be converted to syzkaller representation to be used for fuzzing.

    One advantage of writing a grammar that would be able to generate mountable images is that we would be able to get more coverage than fuzzing with a seed image, since we are also creating new images instead of just mutating the same image.

    I am currently working on learning the internals of FFS and trying to write a grammar definition which can properly generate filesystem images.

    Miscellaneous Work

    Meanwhile, I have also been working in parallel on improving the existing state of Syzkaller.

    Add kernel compiled with KUBSAN for fuzzing

    So far we only used a kernel compiled with KCOV and KASAN for fuzzing with syzkaller. We also decided to add support for syzkaller building a kernel with KUBSAN and KCOV. This would help us have an another dimension in the fuzzing process.

    This required some changes in the build config. We had to remove the hardcoded kernel config and add support for building a kernel with a config passed to the fuzzer. This move would also help us to easily add support for upcoming sanitizers such as KMSAN.

    Improve syscall descriptions

    Improving system call descriptions is a constant ongoing work - I recently added support for fuzzing syscalls such as mount, fork and posix_spawn.

    We are also planning to add support for fuzzing device drivers soon.

    Relevant Links

  • Syzkaller Dashboard for NetBSD
  • Syzkaller repository on Github
  • NetBSD docs on setting up syzkaller
  • GSoC'19 proof of work repository
  • Summary

    We have managed to meet most of the goals that we had planned for the GSoC project. Overall, I have had a wonderful summer with the NetBSD foundation and I look forward to working with them to complete the project.

    Last but not least, I want to thank my mentors, @kamil and @cryo for their useful suggestions and guidance. I also thank Maciej for his insight and guidance which was very fundamental during the course of the project. I would also like to thank Dmitry Vyukov, Google for helping with any issues faced with regard to Syzkaller. Finally, thanks to Google to give me a good chance to work with NetBSD community.

    August 26, 2019

    NetBSD Blog Adapting TriforceAFL for NetBSD, Part 3
    Prepared by Akul Pillai as part of GSoC 2019.

    This is the third report summarising the work done in the third coding period for the GSoC project of Adapting TriforceAFL for NetBSD kernel syscall fuzzing.
    Please also go through the first and second report.

    This post also outlines the work done throughout the duration of GSoC, describes the implications of the same and future improvements to come.

    Current State

    As of now TriforceAFL has been made available in the form of a pkgsrc package (wip/triforceafl). This package allows you to essentially fuzz anything in QEMU’s full system emulation mode using AFL. TriforceNetBSDSyscallFuzzer is built on top of TriforceAFL, specifically to fuzz the NetBSD kernel syscalls. It has also now been made available as wip/triforcenetbsdsyscallfuzzer.
    Several minor issues found in the above two packages have now been resolved, and the project restructured.

    Issues found include:

    The packages should now work as intended by following the instructions outlined in the README.

    The fuzzer was able to detect a few bugs in the last coding period, details can be found in the last report. During this coding period, the Fuzzer was able to detect 79 unique crashes in a period of 2 weeks running on a single machine. The kernel was built with DEBUG + LOCKDEBUG + DIAGNOSTIC. Work is underway to analyse, report and fix the new bugs and to make the process faster.

    With an initial analysis on the outputs on the basis of the syscall that lead to the crash, 6 of the above crashes were unique bugs, the rest were duplicates or slight variants, of which 3 have been previously reported.
    Here are the backtraces of the new bugs found (The reproducers were run with kUBSan Enabled):

    [ 110.4035826] panic: cv_enter,172: uninitialized lock (lock=0xffffe3c1b9
    fc0c50, from=ffffffff81a436e9)
    [ 110.4035826] cpu0: Begin traceback...
    [ 110.4035826] vpanic() at netbsd:vpanic+0x1fd
    [ 110.4035826] snprintf() at netbsd:snprintf
    [ 110.4035826] lockdebug_locked() at netbsd:lockdebug_locked+0x45e
    [ 110.4035826] cv_timedwait_sig() at netbsd:cv_timedwait_sig+0xe7
    [ 110.4035826] lfs_segwait() at netbsd:lfs_segwait+0x6e
    [ 110.4035826] sys___lfs_segwait50() at netbsd:sys___lfs_segwait50+0xe2
    [ 110.4035826] sys___syscall() at netbsd:sys___syscall+0x121
    [ 110.4035826] syscall() at netbsd:syscall+0x1a5
    [ 110.4035826] --- syscall (number 198) ---
    [ 110.4035826] 40261a:
    [ 110.4035826] cpu0: End traceback...
    [ 110.4035826] fatal breakpoint trap in supervisor mode
    [ 110.4035826] trap type 1 code 0 rip 0xffffffff8021ddf5 cs 0x8 rflags 0x282 cr2
     0x73f454b70000 ilevel 0x8 rsp 0xffff8a0068390d70
    [ 110.4035826] curlwp 0xffffe3c1efc556a0 pid 709.1 lowest kstack 0xffff8a006838d
    Stopped in pid 709.1 (driver) at        netbsd:breakpoint+0x5:  leave
    db{0}> bt
    breakpoint() at netbsd:breakpoint+0x5
    vpanic() at netbsd:vpanic+0x1fd
    snprintf() at netbsd:snprintf
    lockdebug_locked() at netbsd:lockdebug_locked+0x45e
    cv_timedwait_sig() at netbsd:cv_timedwait_sig+0xe7
    lfs_segwait() at netbsd:lfs_segwait+0x6e
    sys___lfs_segwait50() at netbsd:sys___lfs_segwait50+0xe2
    sys___syscall() at netbsd:sys___syscall+0x121
    syscall() at netbsd:syscall+0x1a5
    --- syscall (number 198) ---
    [ 161.4877660] panic: LOCKDEBUG: Mutex error: rw_vector_enter,296: spin lock hel
    [ 161.4877660] cpu0: Begin traceback...
    [ 161.4877660] vpanic() at netbsd:vpanic+0x1fd
    [ 161.4877660] snprintf() at netbsd:snprintf
    [ 161.4877660] lockdebug_abort1() at netbsd:lockdebug_abort1+0x115
    [ 161.4877660] rw_enter() at netbsd:rw_enter+0x645
    [ 161.4877660] uvm_fault_internal() at netbsd:uvm_fault_internal+0x1c5
    [ 161.4877660] trap() at netbsd:trap+0xa71
    [ 161.4877660] --- trap (number 6) ---
    [ 161.4877660] config_devalloc() at netbsd:config_devalloc+0x644
    [ 161.4877660] config_attach_pseudo() at netbsd:config_attach_pseudo+0x1c
    [ 161.4877660] vndopen() at netbsd:vndopen+0x1f3
    [ 161.4877660] cdev_open() at netbsd:cdev_open+0x12d
    [ 161.4877660] spec_open() at netbsd:spec_open+0x2d0
    [ 161.4877660] VOP_OPEN() at netbsd:VOP_OPEN+0xba
    [ 161.4877660] vn_open() at netbsd:vn_open+0x434
    [ 161.4877660] sys_ktrace() at netbsd:sys_ktrace+0x1ec
    [ 161.4877660] sys___syscall() at netbsd:sys___syscall+0x121
    [ 161.4877660] syscall() at netbsd:syscall+0x1a5
    [ 161.4877660] --- syscall (number 198) ---
    [ 161.4877660] 40261a:
    [ 161.4877660] cpu0: End traceback...
    [ 161.4877660] fatal breakpoint trap in supervisor mode
    [ 161.4877660] trap type 1 code 0 rip 0xffffffff8021ddf5 cs 0x8 rflags 0x286 cr2
     0xfffffffffffff800 ilevel 0x8 rsp 0xffff9c80683cd4f0
    [ 161.4877660] curlwp 0xfffffcbcda7d36a0 pid 41.1 lowest kstack 0xffff9c80683ca2
    db{0}> bt
    breakpoint() at netbsd:breakpoint+0x5
    vpanic() at netbsd:vpanic+0x1fd
    snprintf() at netbsd:snprintf
    lockdebug_abort1() at netbsd:lockdebug_abort1+0x115
    rw_enter() at netbsd:rw_enter+0x645
    uvm_fault_internal() at netbsd:uvm_fault_internal+0x1c5
    trap() at netbsd:trap+0xa71
    --- trap (number 6) ---
    config_devalloc() at netbsd:config_devalloc+0x644
    config_attach_pseudo() at netbsd:config_attach_pseudo+0x1c
    vndopen() at netbsd:vndopen+0x1f3
    cdev_open() at netbsd:cdev_open+0x12d
    spec_open() at netbsd:spec_open+0x2d0
    VOP_OPEN() at netbsd:VOP_OPEN+0xba
    vn_open() at netbsd:vn_open+0x434
    sys_ktrace() at netbsd:sys_ktrace+0x1ec
    sys___syscall() at netbsd:sys___syscall+0x121
    syscall() at netbsd:syscall+0x1a5
    --- syscall (number 198) ---
    [ 350.9942146] UBSan: Undefined Behavior in /home/ubuntu/triforce/kernel/
    src/sys/kern/kern_ktrace.c:1398:2, member access within misaligned address 0x2b0
    000002a for type 'struct ktr_desc' which requires 8 byte alignment
    [ 351.0025346] uvm_fault(0xffffffff85b73100, 0x2b00000000, 1) -> e
    [ 351.0025346] fatal page fault in supervisor mode
    [ 351.0025346] trap type 6 code 0 rip 0xffffffff81b9dbf9 cs 0x8 rflags 0x286 cr2
     0x2b00000032 ilevel 0 rsp 0xffff8780684d7fb0
    [ 351.0025346] curlwp 0xffffa992128116e0 pid 0.54 lowest kstack 0xffff8780684d42
    kernel: page fault trap, code=0
    Stopped in pid 0.54 (system) at netbsd:ktrace_thread+0x1fd:     cmpq    %rbx,8(%
    db{0}> bt
    ktrace_thread() at netbsd:ktrace_thread+0x1fd

    Reproducing Crashes

    Right now the best way to reproduce a bug detected is to use the Fuzzer’s driver program itself:

    ./driver -tv < crash_file

    The crash_file can be found in the outputs directory and is a custom file format made for the driver.
    Memory allocation and Socket Creation remain to be added to the reproducer generator(genRepro) highlighted in the previous post and will be prioritised in the future.


    Considering that we have a working fuzzer now, it is a good time to analyse how effective TriforceAFL is compared to other fuzzers.

    Recently Syzkaller has been really effective in finding bugs in NetBSD. As shown in the below diagrams, both TriforceAFL and Syzkaller create multiple instances of the system to be fuzzed, gather coverage data, mutate input accordingly and continue fuzzing, but there are several differences in the way they work.





    Key differences between the two include:

    These differences lead to very different results. To get a perspective, here are some stats from syzkaller, which can be found on the syzbot dashboard.

    Bugs Found Upstream Fixed
    57 37 20

    Comparatively in 1st Weekend of Fuzzing:

      Bugs Found
    Syzkaller 18
    TriforceAFL 3

    Targets to be met before a 24/7 fuzzing service is setup, include but are not limited to:

    Future Work

    Although GSoC will be officially ending, I am looking forward to continuing the development of TriforceAFL, adding features and making it more effective.
    Some improvements that can be expected include:

    A new repo has been created at Collaborative work in the future will be updated here.


    TriforceAFL has been successfully adapted for NetBSD and all of the original goals of the GSoC proposal have been met, but the work is far from complete. Work done so far shows great potential, and incremental updates will surely make TriforceAFL a great fuzzer. I am looking forward to continuing the work and making sure that this is the case.
    GSoC has been an amazing learning experience! I would like to thank Maxime Villard for taking an active interest in TriforceAFL and for assisting in testing and development. I would like to thank my mentor Kamil Rytarowski for being the guiding force throughout the project and for assisting me whenever I needed help. And finally I would like to thank Google for giving me this wonderful opportunity.

    August 25, 2019

    NetBSD Blog GSoC 2019 Report: Implementation of compat_netbsd32 DRM ioctl/Getting DRM applications running under compat-linux

    This article was prepared by Surya P as a part of Google Summer of Code 2019

    To begin with where we left off last time, we were able to fix the suse131 package with this commit.This commit adds the GPU-specific bits to the package. And with that we had direct rendering enabled and working.I tested it out with glxinfo and glxgears applications.

    localhost: glx_info glx_info output


    In order to make sure that applications did not break with this commit,I tried Libreoffice and to no surprise everything ran as expected without any hiccups.

    Then I had to make a choice between porting steam and implementing compat_netbsd32 but since steam had lot of dependencies which needed to be resolved and since implementation of compat_netbsd32 had much more priority I started with the implementation of compat_netbsd32.

    Implementing compat_netbsd32 DRM ioctls - The Setup

    For the Setup I downloaded i386 sets from the official NetBSD site and extracted it in the /emul directory. I ran some arbitrary programs like cat and ls from the emulated netbsd32 directory to make sure everything ran perfectly without any problems. I then tried running the 32bit glxinfo and glxgears application and to no surprise it kept segfaulting. I ktraced the application and identified the DRM ioctl that needed to be implemented.

    Implementing compat_netbsd32 DRM ioctls - The Code

    There were several functions which were required for the complete working of the compat_netbsd32 DRM ioctl. We implemented each and every function and had the code compiled. We then made sure that the code compiled both as a module and as well as a non module option with which the kernel can be built.I initially tested the code with 32bit glxinfo and glxgears , and the program didn't segfault and ran as expected.

    Implementing compat_netbsd32 DRM ioctls - Testing

    In order to test the code I built a test application leveraging the api’s provided in libdrm. It is a very simple application which initializes the DRM connection, setup and draws a gradient on screen and exits. I initially ran it against the native amd64 architecture, but to my surprise the application didn't work as expected. After some hours of debugging I realized that there can be only one DRM master and X was already a master. After exiting the X session and running the application, everything ran perfectly for both amd64 as well as i386 architectures.

    localhost: drm_test gradient

    What is done



    Completing the tasks listed in the TODO is of highest priority and would be carried over even if it exceeds the GSOC time period.

    Last but not the least I would like to thank my mentors @christos and @maya for helping me out and guiding me throughout the process and Google for providing me with such a wonderful opportunity to work with NetBSD community.

    August 24, 2019

    DragonFly BSD Digest In Other BSDs for 2019/08/24

    Incidentally, my employer, REDCOM, uses FreeBSD as a base for its main product, is deployed in rough areas and in high-security government locations, and is one of the few electronics manufacturers still working entirely in the U.S..  REDCOM also has jobs to fill in New York, where I work.  Please, apply if you see a job that interests you – and tell me.

    NetBSD Blog GSoC 2019 Report: Adding NetBSD KNF to clang-format, Final

    This report was prepared by Manikishan Ghantasala as a part of Google Summer of Code 2019

    This is the third and final report of the project Add KNF (NetBSD style) clang-format configuration that I have been doing as a part of Google Summer of Code (GSoC) ‘19 with the NetBSD.

    You can refer to the first and second reports here:

    1. Adding NetBSD KNF to clang-format, Part 1
    2. Adding NetBSD KNF to clang-format, Part 2

    About the project

    ClangFormat is a set of tools to format C/C++/Java/JavaScript/Objective-C/Protobuf code. It is built on top of LibFormat to support workflow in various ways including a standalone tool called clang-format, and editor integrations. It supports a few built-in CodingStyles that include: LLVM, Google, Chromium, Mozilla, Webkit. When the desired code formatting style is different from the available options, the style can be customized using a configuration file. The aim of this project is to add NetBSD KNF support to clang-format and new styles to libFormat that support NetBSD’s style of coding. This would allow us to format NetBSD code by passing `-style=NetBSD` as an argument.

    How to use clang-format

    While using clang-format one can choose a style from the predefined styles or create a custom style by configuring specific style options.

    Use the following command if you are using one of the predefined styles

    clang-format filename -style=<Name of the style>

    Configuring style with clang-format

    clang-format supports two ways to provide custom style options: directly specify style name in the -style= command line option or use -style=file and put style configuration in a .clang-format or _clang-format file in the project’s top directory.

    Check Clang-Format Style Options to know how different Style Options works and how to use them.

    When specifying configuration in the -style= option, the same configuration is applied for all input files. The format of the configuration is:

    -style=’{key1: value1, key2: value2, ...}'

    The .clang-format file uses YAML format. An easy way to get a valid .clang-format file containing all configuration options of a certain predefined style is:

    clang-format -style=llvm -dump-config > .clang-format

    After making required changes to the .clang-format file it can be used as a custom Style by:

    clang-format <filename> -style=file

    Changes made to clang-format

    The following changes were made to the clang-format as a part of adding NetBSD KNF:

    New Style options added:

    1. BitFieldDeclarationsOnePerLine
    2. AlignConsecutiveListElements
    3. Modifications made to existing styles:

      1. Modified SortIncludes  and IncludeCategories to support NetBSD like includes.
      2. Modified SpacesBeforeTrailingComments to support block comments.

       The new NetBSD Style Configurations:

      This is the final configurations for clang-format with modified changes to support NetBSD KNF.

              AlignTrailingComments: true
              AlwaysBreakAfterReturnType: All
              AlignConsecutiveMacros: true
              AlignConsecutiveLists: true
              BitFieldDeclarationsOnePerLine: true
              BreakBeforeBraces: Mozilla
              ColumnLimit: 80
              ContinuationIndentWidth: 4
              Cpp11BracedListStyle: false
              FixNamespaceComments: true
              IndentCaseLabels: false
              IndentWidth: 8
              IncludeBlocks: Regroup
               - Regex: '^<sys/param\.h>'
                 Priority: 1
                 SortPriority: 0
               - Regex: '^<sys/types\.h>'
                 Priority: 1
                 SortPriority: 1
               - Regex: '^<sys.*/'
                 Priority: 1
                 SortPriority: 2
               - Regex: '^<uvm/'
                 Priority: 2
                 SortPriority: 3
               - Regex: '^<machine/'
                 Priority: 3
                 SortPriority: 4
               - Regex: '^<dev/'
                 Priority: 4
                 SortPriority: 5
               - Regex: '^<net.*/'
                 Priority: 5
                 SortPriority: 6
               - Regex: '^<protocols/'
                 Priority: 5
                 SortPriority: 7
               - Regex: '^<(fs|miscfs|msdosfs|nfs|ufs)/'
                 Priority: 6
                 SortPriority: 8
               - Regex: '^<(x86|amd64|i386|xen)/'
                 Priority: 7
                 SortPriority: 8
               - Regex: '^<path'
                 Priority: 9
                 SortPriority: 11
               - Regex: '^<[^/].*\.h'
                 Priority: 8
                 SortPriority: 10
               - Regex: '^\".*\.h\"'
                 Priority: 10
                 SortPriority: 12   
              SortIncludes: true
              SpacesBeforeCpp11BracedList: true
              SpacesBeforeTrailingComments: 4
              TabWidth: 8
              UseTab: Always

      Status of each Style Option

      Styles Ready to Merge:

      1.Modified SortIncludes and IncludeCategories:


      Styles needing revision



          Bugs: 1 

       2.SpacesBeforeTrailingComments supports Block Comments:


          Remark:  I have to discuss more on the cases that Block comments are used but where the Spaces are not to be added before them.

      WIP Style



          Bugs: 1

      About Styles



          This style lines up BitField declarations on consecutive lines with correct indentation.

                  unsigned int bas :3, hh : 4, jjj : 8;
                  unsigned int baz:1,
                  unsigned  int bas : 3, 
                              hh  : 4, 
                              jjj : 8;
                  unsigned int baz:1,

      Bug: Indentation breaks in the presence of block comments in between.


                          unsigned  int bas : 3, /* foo */
                                        hh  : 4, /* bar */
                                        jjj : 8;


                          unsigned  int bas : 3, /* foo */
                              hh  : 4, /* bar */
                              jjj : 8;

      Modification for SortIncludes and IncludeCategories:


          Status: Accepted, and ready to land.

      Clang-format has a style option named SortIncludes which sorts the includes in alphabetical order.The IncludeCategories Style allows us to define a custom order for sorting the includes.

      It supports POSIX extended regular expressions to assign Categories for includes.

      The SortIncludes then sorts the #includes first according to increasing category number and then lexically within each category. When IncludeBlocks  is set to Regroup  merge multiple #includes blocks together and sort as one. Then split into groups based on category priority.

      The problem arises when you want to define the order within each category, which is not supported. In this modification a new field named SortPriority is added, which is optional.

      The #includes matching the regexs are sorted according to the values of SortPriority, and Regrouping after sorting is done according to the values of Priority. If SortPriority is not defined it is set to the value of Priority as a default value.

               - Regex: ‘<^c/’
                 Priority: 1
                 SortPriority: 0
               - Regex: ‘^<(a|b)/’
                 Priority: 1
                 SortPriority: 1
               - Regex: ‘^<(foo)/’
                 Priority: 2
               - Regex: ‘.*’
                 Priority: 3
                  #include "exe.h"
                  #include <a/dee.h>
                  #include <foo/b.h>
                  #include <a/bee.h>
                  #include <exc.h>
                  #include <b/dee.h>
                  #include <c/abc.h>
                  #include <foo/a.h>
                  #include <c/abc.h>
                  #include <a/bee.h>
                  #include <a/dee.h>
                  #include <b/dee.h>
                  #include <foo/a.h>
                  #include <foo/b.h>
                  #include <exc.h>
                  #include "exe.h"

      As you can observe in the above example the #includes are grouped by different priority and were sorted by different priority. Introduction of this new patch doesn’t affect the old configurations as it will work as the same old SortIncludes if sortPriority is not defined.

      Refer to Report 2 for detailed examples on this.

      Modification for SpacesBeforeTrailingComments


      The SpacesBeforeTrailingComments is modified to support Block Comments which was used to support only line comments. The reason for this is block comments have different usage patterns and different exceptional cases. I have tried to exclude cases where some tests doesn’t support spaces before block comments. I have been discussing in the community for getting to know which cases should be included, and which to exclude.

      Cases that were excluded due to failing tests:


          Status: Work In Progress

      This is a new style that aligns elements of consecutive lists in a nested list. The Style is still in work in progress. There are few cases that needed to be covered and fix few bugs.

                  keys[] = {
                      {"all", f_all, 0 },
                      { "cbreak", f_cbreak, F_OFFOK },
                      {"cols", f_columns, F_NEEDARG },
                      { "columns", f_columns, F_NEEDARG },
                  keys[] = { { "all",      f_all,        0 },
                             { "cbreak",   _cbreak,      F_OFFOK },
                             { "cols",     f_columns,    F_NEEDARG }, 
                             { "columns",  f_columns,    F_NEEDARG },
      Work to be done:

      This style option aligns list declarations that are nested inside a list, I would also like to extend this style to align individual single line list declarations that are consecutive.

      The problem with this style is the case in which there can be different number of elements for each individual.

                  keys[] =  { "all",        f_all,        0 };
                  keys2[] = { "cbreak",     _cbreak,      F_OFFOK };
                  keys3[] = { "cols",       f_columns,    F_NEEDARG,     7 };
                  keys4[] = { "columns",    f_columns };

      Future Work

      Some Style Options that were introduced during this GSoC were made in order to meet all the cases in NetBSD KNF. So they may need some revisions with respect to other languages and coding styles that clang-format supports. I will continue working on this project even after the GSoC period on the style options that are yet to be merged and add new style options if necessary and will get the NetBSD Style merged with upstream which is the final deliverable for the project. I would like to take up the responsibility of maintaining the “NetBSD KNF” support to clang-format.


      Even though officially the GSoC’19 coding period is over, I definitely look forward to keep contributing to this project. This summer has had me digging a lot into the code from CLANG and NetBSD for references for creating or modifying the Style Options. I am pretty much interested to work with NetBSD again, I like being in the community and I would like to improve my skills and learn more about Operating Systems by contributing to this organisation.

      I would like to thank my mentors Michal and Christos for their constant support and patient guidance. A huge thanks to both the NetBSD and LLVM community who have been supportive and have helped me whenever I have had trouble. Finally a huge thanks to Google for providing me this opportunity.

      August 23, 2019

      Unix Stack Exchange NetBSD - Unable to install pkgin

      I'm running NetBSD on the Raspberry Pi 1 Model B.

      uname -a
      NetBSD rpi 7.99.64 NetBSD 7.99.64 (RPI.201703032010Z) evbarm

      I'm trying to install pkgin but I'm receiving an error about version mismatch ...

      pkg_add -f pkgin
      pkg_add: Warning: package `pkgin-0.9.4nb4' was built for a platform:
      pkg_add: NetBSD/earmv6hf 7.99.42 (pkg) vs. NetBSD/earmv6hf 7.99.64 (this host)
      pkg_add: Warning: package `pkg_install-20160410nb1' was built for a platform:
      pkg_add: NetBSD/earmv6hf 7.99.58 (pkg) vs. NetBSD/earmv6hf 7.99.64 (this host)
      pkg_add: Can't create pkgdb entry: /var/db/pkg/pkg_install-20160410nb1: Permission denied
      pkg_add: Can't install dependency pkg_install>=20130901, continuing
      pkg_add: Warning: package `libarchive-3.3.1' was built for a platform:
      pkg_add: NetBSD/earmv6hf 7.99.59 (pkg) vs. NetBSD/earmv6hf 7.99.64 (this host)
      pkg_add: Can't create pkgdb entry: /var/db/pkg/libarchive-3.3.1: Permission denied
      pkg_add: Can't install dependency libarchive>=3.2.1nb2, continuing
      pkg_add: Can't create pkgdb entry: /var/db/pkg/pkgin-0.9.4nb4: Permission denied
      pkg_add: 1 package addition failed

      How can I install the correct version?

      August 21, 2019

      Roy Marples dhcpcd-8.0.3 released

      With the following changes:

      DragonFlyBSD-500704 kernel has the functionality dhcpcd needs to compile without any warnings. There are still improvements to be made to the whole network stack, but none of them are dhcpcd specific.

      dhcpcd-ui now correctly reports SSD association and all the addresses obtained (regression from dhcpcd-7)

      dhcpcd now supports QMI interfaces in RawIP mode - this is basically PtP interface without any L2 frame header. Because PtP interfaces normally configure their address via a 3rd party tool (dhcpcd waits for this address to appear), DHCP is not enabled by default. You can now enable it like so

      interface wwan0

      Or just add --dhcp on the command line.

      DragonFly BSD Digest A CVE fixed but still hidden

      Here’s something I haven’t see before: at the time of me typing this, there are commits in DragonFly, FreeBSD, and I assume NetBSD (haven’t found the commit), but the 2019-5612 CVE entry is still shown as reserved and not public.  This may change by the time you read this article, of course.

      Update: the original source, found by an intrepid reader.

      August 20, 2019

      Super User How to run a Windowed JAR file over SSH without installing JRE and without root access on NetBsd?

      First, I can use Java, but for what I want to achieve (building a database where othe only application supporting the format is in Java), I need 100Gb of RAM during 20 hours.

      I have access to a server with the required RAM, but not as root and no JRE is available. The same is true for the Xorg libraries.

      Here’s the uname :

      8.0_STABLE NetBSD 8.0_STABLE (GENERIC) #0: Sun Feb 24 10:50:49 UTC 2019  [email protected]:/usr/src/sys/arch/amd64/compile/GENERIC amd64

      The Linux layer is installed, but nothing else is installed : not even Glibc, so the only applications which can be run are the ones which are statically compiled.

      So not only Java isn’t Installed, but some of the require shared libraries are missing…
      However, I have full write access to my $HOME directory, and I can run my own executables from there.

      Is a way to convert a Jar file into a NetBsd Executable or Linux statically linked executable ? I have also the source code of the Jar file if compiling is an acceptable solution.

      I only found about ɢᴄᴊ, but I’m unsure if Java 7 is supported…

      Amitai Schlair Announcing notqmail

      Running my own email server has its challenges. Chief among them: my favorite mail-server software hasn’t been updated since I started using it in 1998.

      The qmail logo
      qmail logo

      Okay, that’s not entirely true. While qmail hasn’t been updated by its original author, a group of respected users created netqmail, a series of tiny updates that were informed, conservative, and careful. By their design, it was safe for everyone running qmail to follow netqmail, so everyone did. But larger changes in the world of email — authentication, encryption, and ever-shifting anti-spam techniques — remained as puzzles for each qmail administrator to solve in their own way. And netqmail hasn’t been updated since 2007.

      One fork per person

      In the interim, devotees have continued maintaining their own individual qmail forks. Some have shared theirs publicly. I’ve preferred the design constraints of making minimal, purpose-specific, and conflict-avoidant add-ons and patches. Then again, these choices are motivated by the needs of my qmail packaging, which I suppose is itself a de facto fork.

      I’ve found this solo work quite satisfying. I’ve learned more C, reduced build-time complexity, added run-time configurability, and published unusually polished and featureful qmail packages for over 20 platforms. Based on these experiences, I’ve given dozens of workshops and talks. In seeking to simplify system administration for myself and others, I’ve become a better programmer and consultant.

      Still, wouldn’t it be more satisfying if we could somehow pool our efforts? If, long after the end of DJB’s brilliant one-man show, a handful of us could shift how we relate to this codebase — and to each other — in order to bring a collaborative open-source effort to life? If, with netqmail as inspiration, we could produce safe updates while also evolving qmail to meet more present-day needs?

      One fork per community

      My subtle artwork
      notqmail logo == qmail logo overlaid by a red circle with a slash through it

      Say hello to notqmail.

      Our first release is informed, conservative, and careful — but bold. It reflects our brand-new team’s rapid convergence on where we’re going and how we’ll get there. In the span of a few weeks, we’ve:

      I say “bold” because, for all the ways we intend to hew to qmail tradition, one of our explicit goals is a significant departure. Back in the day, qmail’s lack of license, redistribution restrictions, technical barriers, and social norms made it hard for OS integrators to create packages, and hard for package users to get help. netqmail 1.06 expressed a desire to change this. In notqmail 1.07, we’ve made packaging much easier. (I’ve already updated pkgsrc from netqmail to notqmail, and some of my colleagues have prepared notqmail RPM and .deb packages.) Further improvements for packagers are part of what’s slated for 1.08.

      What’s next

      Looking much further ahead, another of our explicit goals is “Meeting all common needs with OS-provided packages”. We have a long way to go. But we couldn’t be off to a better start.

      By our design, we believe we’ve made it safe for everyone running qmail to follow notqmail. We hope you’ll vet our changes carefully, then update your installations to notqmail 1.07. We hope you’ll start observing us as we continue the work. We hope you’ll discuss freely on the qmail mailing list. We hope you’ll be a part of the qmail revival in ways that are comfortable for you. And we hope that, in the course of time, notqmail will prove to be the community-driven open-source successor to qmail.

      August 11, 2019

      Unix Stack Exchange How to use resize_ffs in netbsd

      I'm trying to use resize_ffs with netbsd to increase the size of my partition. I have NetBSD running in a virtual machine, and have expanded the size of the disk, and now wish to grow the partition to match.

      The man_page for the tool is here

      I am trying to grow a 300mb partition to 1gb.

      The tool manpage says that specifiying a size is not mandatory, and that if it is not specified it will grow to use available space (ideal behaviour), however this results in an error saying newsize not known.

      I have used various online tools to try and calculate the disk geomtery, but no matter what I try when I pass a number to -s, I get the error 'bad magic number'.

      I have been unable to find example of using this tool online.

      What is the correct way to use resize_ffs to grow a partition to use available disk space?

      August 08, 2019 New Security Advisory: NetBSD-SA2019-004

      August 01, 2019 New Developer in July 2019

      July 31, 2019

      NetBSD Package System (pkgsrc) on DaemonForums xf86-input-keyboard, xf86-video-vmware, unrecoverable error
      Hello everybody:

      I'm still trying to work NetBSD with. Complicated OS, at least in this stage of development. I wonder "how can I use it as desktop graphical OS, if it can't be installed xf86-input-keyboard, or xf86-video-vmware, and so on?"

      Theses are not packages stored in

      They are not stored under any release of NetBSD for i386 systems.

      All of them must be installed from source...

      But, an error arises, always, ... randrproto>1.6.0 needed

      This is not an error of NetBSD, but at this time it has not been solved, and seems to be an endless error, among the next releases of NetBSD.

      According documents on the net this bug is solved using xorgproto instead of randrproto, but does not solve anything, really, the bug is always present, not fixed anyway.

      Does anybody have a binary package for xf86-input-keyboard, ?

      A package that should be installed without thes issues?

      Thank you all for your help.

      P.S.: My NetBSD is 8.0 release, installed in a VMWared environment under Win.7.

      July 30, 2019

      Unix Stack Exchange pkgin installation problem (NetBSD)

      I just installed NetBSD 7.1.1 (i386) on my old laptop.

      During the installation, I could not install pgkin (I don't know why), so I skipped it and now I have a NetBSD 7.1.1 installed on my laptop without pkgin.

      My problem is "How to install pkgin on NetBSD (i386) ?"

      I found this (Click) tutorial and I followed it:

      I tried :

      #export PKG_PATH=""
      # pkg_add -v pkgin

      And I got :

      pkg_add: Can't process*: Not Found
      pkg_add: no pkg found for 'pkgin',sorry.
      pkg_add: 1 package addition failed

      I know this is a wrong command because this ftp address is for amd64 while my laptop and this NetBSD is i386. (I can't find the correct command for i386 )

      I also followed instructions of (Click), and I did

      git clone

      on another computer and copied the output (which is a folder name pkgin) to my NetBSD (my NetBSD doesn't have 'git' command)

      and then I did :

      ./configure --prefix=/usr/pkg --with-libraries=/usr/pkg/lib --with-includes=/usr/pkg/include

      and then :


      but I got :

      #   compile  pkgin/summary.o
      gcc -O2    -std=gnu99    -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -Wmissing-prototypes -Wpointer-arith -Wno-sign-compare  -Wno-traditional  -Wa,--fatal-warnings -Wreturn-type -Wswitch -Wshadow -Werror    -DPKGIN_VERSION=\""0.9.4 for NetBSD-7.1.1 i386"\" -DNETBSD  -g -DLOCALBASE=\"/usr/local\"           -DPKG_SYSCONFDIR=\"/usr/local/etc\"         -DPKG_DBDIR="\"/var/db/pkg\""           -DDEF_LOG_DIR="\"/var/db/pkg\""         -DPKGIN_DB=\"/var/db/pkgin\"            -DPKGTOOLS=\"/usr/local/sbin\" -DHAVE_CONFIG_H -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -D_LARGE_FILES -DCHECK_MACHINE_ARCH=\"i386\" -Iexternal -I. -I/usr/local/include  -c    summary.c
      *** Error code 1
      make: stopped in /root/pkgin

      I think this error occurs because of the dependencies. (which is mentioned in but still, don't know how to install those dependencies.

      EDIT: I found "" but it still says

      no pkg fond for 'pkgin', sorry


      ** I solved the problem by writing 7.1 instead of 7.1.1**

      July 29, 2019

      NetBSD General on DaemonForums Fighting with NetBSD installig packages
      There is a video explaining how to install NetBSD 8.0. I followed that video, and theres is something I couldn't find in docs about NetBSD. Installing Bash and using pkgin inside it enables to install packages that in other way can't be installed.

      In turn, when I tried to install xf86-input-vmware, xf86-input-keyboard and xf86-video-vmware... these packages are not in the repository at all.

      Looking for the net I found theses packages in an ftp site of SmartOS, that uses NetBSD packages.

      I downloaded these packages, I have installed video-vmware and input-vmmouse using pkg_add -f program_name.tgz.

      The package xf86-input-keyboard gives an error that "keyring" not found, and can't be installed.

      The question is, why, if the video shows how install those packages directly by using pkgin install program_name, those packages don't exist anymore in NetBSD repositories.

      Using pkgsrc and make install clean gives an unrecoverable error about randrproto>1.6.0 is needed.

      I hope NetBSD will update repositories, because it is very difficult to work this OS with.

      Does anybody I help with this?

      Unix Stack Exchange How to install directly from a package *.tgz file in NetBSD, OpenBSD, or FreeBSD

      Is there any way to install software from the *.tgz file that is its package, in NetBSD? Or indeed in operating systems with similar package managers such as OpenBSD or FreeBSD?

      For example, I can install the nano editor on NetBSD using this command:

      pkgin nano

      (I could do the same with a similar pkg install nano command on FreeBSD.)

      What if I download the package file directly from the operating system's package repository, which would be a URL like

      Having obtained the package file from the repository by hand like this, is there any way to now install nano directly from it? How do I do that?

      July 24, 2019

      Unix Stack Exchange How to compile fIcy for BSD?

      I'm trying to compile fIcy ( for NetBSD/FreeBSD.

      When I'm executing the make command nothing happens. Even no error message.

      The same source package compiles without problems with Debian 10.

      Is the Makefile even compatible with BSD?

      The commands I used so far on FreeBSD 12:

      pkg install gcc
      tar xfvz fIcy-master.tar.gz
      cd fIcy-master
      type make
      make is /usr/bin/make

      July 13, 2019

      Jeremy C. Reed 2019-July-13 pfSense Essentials Book Writing

      This week I received my printed proof from the printer and enabled it to be printed. It is now for sale at Amazon and Barnes and Noble,

      I set an alarm to work on it very early a few days a week and it took me a few years. (I am blessed to only commute a few times a year, so I make sure that I don't waste that gifted time.)

      This book was written using Docbook using NetBSD and vi. The print-ready book was generated with Dblatex version 0.3.10 with a custom stylesheet, pdfTeX 3.14159265-2.6-1.40.19 (Web2C 2018), and the TeX document production system installed via Tex Live and Pkgsrc. Several scripts and templates were created to help have a consistent document.

      The book work was managed using the Subversion version control software. I carefully outlined my steps in utilizing the useful interfaces and identified every web and console interface. The basic writing process included adding over 350 special comment tags in the docbook source files that identified topics to cover and for every pfSense web interface PHP script (highlighting if they were main webpages from the pfSense menu). As content was written, I updated these special comments with a current status. A periodic script checked the docbook files and the generated book and reported on writing progress and current needs.

      During this writing, nearly every interface was tested. In addition, code and configurations were often temporarily customized to simulate various pfSense behaviors and system situations. Most of the pfSense interface and low-level source code was studied, which helped with identifying pfSense configurations and features that didn't display in standard setups and all of its options. The software was upgraded several times and installed and ran in multiple VMs and hardware environments with many wireless and network cards, including with IPv6. In addition, third-party documentation and even source code was researched to help explain pfSense configurations and behaviors.

      As part of this effort, I documented 352 bugs (some minor and some significant) and code suggestions that I found from code reading or from actual use of the system. (I need to post that.)

      The first subversion commit for this book was in July 2014. It has commits in 39 different months with 656 commits total. The book's docbook source had 3789 non-printed comments and 56,193 non-blank lines of text. The generated book has over 180,000 words. My subversion logs show I have commits on 41 different Saturdays. Just re-reading with cleanup took me approximately 160 hours.

      July 11, 2019

      Stack Overflow configuration of tty on BSD system

      For a command like this one on Linux debian-linux 4.19.0-1-amd64 #1 SMP Debian 4.19.12-1 (2018-12-22) x86_64 GNU/Linux with xfce I get :

      [email protected]:~$ dbus-send --system --type=method_call --print-reply --dest
      =org.freedesktop.DBus /org/freedesktop/DBus org.freedesktop.DBus.ListActivatable  

      The same command on OpenBSD LeOpenBSD 6.4 GENERIC.MP#364 amd64 with xfce I get :

      ktop/DBus org.freedesktop.DBus.ListActivatableNames   <

      On linux, at the end of screen, we go to next line.
      On BSD(OpenBSD-NetBSD), the command line continue on the same line and the first words disapear.
      It's the same in xfce-terminal-emulator, xterm or in TTY (Alt-Ctrl-F3)

      I try to add am in gettytab in the defaut section with no avail.
      Termcap man page say :
      If the display wraps around to the beginning of the next line when the cursor reaches the right margin, then it should have the am capability.
      What can I do ?

      July 09, 2019

      NetBSD Package System (pkgsrc) on DaemonForums Zabbix Frontend Dependencies
      Hi All
      I used pkgsrc to install the zabbix frontend. I notice though that it automatically installs some php71 dependencies. I really wanted to use php73 though as php71 has some vulns. Is there a way to do that?

      July 08, 2019

      Server Fault Webserver farm with NFS share (autofs failure)

      I am trying to set up the farm of webservers, consisting of the internal, external and worker servers.

      1. The actual sites content is stored on internal NFS server deep in internal network. All sites contents management is centralized.

      2. BSD-based external servers have Lighttpd doing all the HTTP/HTTPS job, serving static content. Main NFS share is auto-mounted via special path, like /net/server/export/www/site/ (via amd).

      3. Every Lighttpd have fastcgi parameters pointing to several worker servers, which have php-fpm working (for example). Different sites may require different php versions or arrangement, so www01 and www02 may serve site "A" having php-fpm over PHP 5.6 and www05 and www06 will serve site "B" having php-fpm over PHP 7.2.

      4. Every worker get requests for certain sites (one or more) with path /net/server/export/www/site and execute PHP or any other code. They also have amd (for BSD) and autofs (for Linux) working.

      5. For some sites Lighttpd may not forward fastcgi, but do proxying instead, so workers can have Apache or other web-server (even Java-based) working.

      External servers are always BSD, internal servers too, but workers can be different upon actual needs.

      This all work good when workers are BSD. If we are using Linux on workers - it stops working when share is automatically unmounted. When one tries to access the site he will get error 404. When I connect to server via ssh I will see no mounted share on "df -h". If I do any "ls" on /net/server/export - it is self-mounted as intended and site starts to work. On BSD-systems df show amd shares always mounted despite of 60 seconds dismount period.

      I believe there is a difference between amd and autofs approach, php-fpm calls on Linux become some kind of "invisible" to autofs and do not cause auto-mount, because any other access to /net/server/ work at any time and do cause auto-mount. Also, this happens not with php-fpm only, Apache serving static content on auto-mounted NFS share behave same way.

      Sorry for long description, but I tried to describe it good. The main question here - is anyone know why calls to /net/server may not cause auto-mount in autofs and how to prevent this behavior.

      For lot of reasons I do not consider using static mounting, so this is not an option here. As for Linux versions - mostly it was tested on OEL 7.recent.

      Server Fault ssh tunnel refusing connections with "channel 2: open failed"

      All of a sudden (read: without changing any parameters) my netbsd virtualmachine started acting oddly. The symptoms concern ssh tunneling.

      From my laptop I launch:

      $ ssh -L 7000:localhost:7000 [email protected] -N -v

      Then, in another shell:

      $ irssi -c localhost -p 7000

      The ssh debug says:

      debug1: Connection to port 7000 forwarding to localhost port 7000 requested.
      debug1: channel 2: new [direct-tcpip]
      channel 2: open failed: connect failed: Connection refused
      debug1: channel 2: free: direct-tcpip: listening port 7000 for localhost port 7000, connect from port 53954, nchannels 3

      I tried also with localhost:80 to connect to the (remote) web server, with identical results.

      The remote host runs NetBSD:

      bash-4.2# uname -a
      NetBSD host 5.1_STABLE NetBSD 5.1_STABLE (XEN3PAE_DOMU) #6: Fri Nov  4 16:56:31 MET 2011  [email protected]:/m/obj/m/src/sys/arch/i386/compile/XEN3PAE_DOMU i386

      I am a bit lost. I tried running tcpdump on the remote host, and I spotted these 'bad chksum':

      09:25:55.823849 IP (tos 0x0, ttl 64, id 0, offset 0, flags [DF], proto TCP (6), length 67, bad cksum 0 (->3cb3)!) > P, cksum 0xfe37 (incorrect (-> 0xa801), 1622402406:1622402421(15) ack 1635127887 win 4096 <nop,nop,timestamp 5002727 5002603>

      I tried restarting the ssh daemon to no avail. I haven't rebooted yet - perhaps somebody here can suggest other diagnostics. I think it might either be the virtual network card driver, or somebody rooted our ssh.

      Ideas..? pkgsrc-2019Q2 released

      July 04, 2019

      OS News OpenBSD is now my workstation
      Why OpenBSD? Simply because it is the best tool for the job for me for my new-to-me Lenovo Thinkpad T420. Additionally, I do care about security and non-bloat in my personal operating systems (business needs can have different priorities, to be clear). I will try to detail what my reasons are for going with OpenBSD (instead of GNU/Linux, NetBSD, or FreeBSD of which I’m comfortable using without issue), challenges and frustrations I’ve encountered, and what my opinions are along the way. I’ve never managed to really get into the BSDs, as Linux has always served my needs for a UNIX-like operating system quite well. I feel like the BSDs are more pure and less messy than Linux, but is that actually true, or just my perception?

      July 03, 2019

      Super User Using a Console-only NetBSD VM

      I am experimenting with NetBSD and seeing if I can get the Fenrir screenreader to run on it. However, I hit a snag post install; the console that I was using for the installation was working perfectly fine, however it stopped working alltogether once I completed the install. For reference, here is the line I used for virt-install:

      virt-install --connect qemu:///system -n netbsd-testing \
                   --ram 4096 --vcpus=8 \
                   --cpu=host \
                   -c /home/sektor/Downloads/boot-com.iso  \
                   --os-type=netbsd --os-variant=netbsd8.0 \
                   --disk=pool=devel,size=100,format=qcow2 \
                   -w network=default --nographics 

      When it asked me for the type of terminal I was using (this being the NetBSD install program), I accepted the default which was VT200. As I recall, I told it to use the BIOS for booting, and not any of the comm serial ports. Has anyone had any further experience with using no graphics on a Libvirt virtualized machine, and have any points as to how to get a working console?


      June 29, 2019

      NetBSD General on DaemonForums View X session of instance in VirtualBox via VNC
      Does anyone have a working howto on how to attach X session on NetBSD running within VirtualBox to VNC on the host computer?

      June 12, 2019

      Super User NetBSD - no pkg

      After full installation of latest NetBSD I'm tried to launch pkgin, but received pkgin not found, also I've got same for pkgsrc. Then I've found, that there's no /usr/pkg location.

      That's normal or I've did something wrong?

      June 01, 2019 New Developers in May 2019

      May 24, 2019

      NetBSD Installation and Upgrading on DaemonForums no bootable device after installtion
      After installing NetBSD 8 I have a couple problems.
      1. If the USB drive with the installation image is not inserted the system will not boot.
      2. Running X -configure causes a reboot.

      1. Without the installation USB:

      PXE-M0F: Exiting PXE ROM.
      No bootable -- insert boot disk and press any key

      The first time I thought I made a mistake and did something to the BIOS, but the partitions looks fine, just like it should in The Guide:

      a:  0    472983    472984    FFSv2
      b:  472984    476939    3985    swap
      c:  0    476939    476939    NetBSD partition
      d:  0    476939    476940    whole disc
      e:  0    0    0    unused

      I am at a bit of a loss, since as far as I know it should not be possible to set an installation medium as the boot source of an OS.

      2. I do not know if this is unsupported hardware or related to #1.

      DRM error in radeon_get_bios:
      Unable to locate a BIOS ROM
      radeon0: error: Fatal error during GPU init

      I am trawlling through documrntation, but with a telephone. So I also cannot post a dmesg, although I can look through other threads where it is posted and copy it. (A little later in the day.)

      March 15, 2019

      Stack Overflow host netbsd 1.4 or 1.5 i386 cross-compile target macppc powerpc g3 program

      For some reason, I want develop program which can work on netbsd 1.4 or 1.5 powerpc ,target cpu is power750(powerpc platform,nearly 20 years old system),but I can't find how to make this kind cross-compile enviroment vmware host:i386 netbsd 1.5 + egcs1.1.1 + binutils 2.9.1 ---> target host:macppc powerpc netbsd 1.5 + egcs 1.1.1 I download and install netbsd 1.5 vmware and download pkgsrc,when I make /usr/src/pkgsrc/cross/powerpc-netbsd,I got gcc work on i386 but not cross-gcc,why? Thank you if any help!

      March 07, 2019

      Amitai Schlair NYCBUG: Maintaining qmail in 2019

      On Wednesday, March 6, I attended New York City BSD User Group and presented Maintaining qmail in 2019. This one pairs nicely with my recent DevOpsDays Ignite talk about why and how to Run Your @wn Email Server! That this particular “how” could be explained in 5 minutes is remarkable, if I may say so myself. In this NYCBUG talk — my first since 2014 — I show my work. It’s a real-world, open-source tale of methodically, incrementally reducing complexity in order to afford added functionality.

      My abstract:

      qmail 1.03 was notoriously bothersome to deploy. Twenty years later, for common use cases, I’ve finally made it pretty easy. If you want to try it out, I’ll help! (Don’t worry, it’s even easier to uninstall.) Or just listen as I share the sequence of stepwise improvements from then to now — including pkgsrc packaging, new code, and testing on lots of platforms — as well as the reasons I keep finding this project worthwhile.

      Here’s the video:

      February 23, 2019

      Stack Overflow How to perform a 308 open redirect with php and apache?

      I want to perform an open redirect so,

      would redirect to
      Here’s /index.cgi which of course has exec permissions.

      header("Location: ".$_GET["endpoint"], true, 307);

      and Here’s /flashredirect/.htaccess

      Options FollowSymLinks
      Options +ExecCGI
      AddHandler cgi-script .cgi .pl
      RewriteEngine On
      RewriteBase /
      FallbackResource /index.cgi

      Obviously, there’s an error somewhere but where ? Also accessing error logs is payfull on so I can’t know the problem.

      February 18, 2019

      Stack Overflow NetBSD long double trouble

      I have simple code:

       #include <stdio.h>
       int main()
            //char d[10] = {0x13, 0x43, 0x9b, 0x64, 0x28, 0xf8, 0xff, 0x7f, 0x00, 0x00};
            //long double rd = *(long double*)&d;
            long double rd = 3.3621e-4932L;
            printf("%Le\n", rd);
            return 0;

      On my Ubuntu x64 it prints as expected 3.362100e-4932. On my NetBSD it prints 1.681050e-4932

      Why it happens and how can I fix it? I try clang and gcc with same result.

      My system (VM inside VirtualBox 5.0):

       uname -a
       NetBSD netbsd.home 7.0 NetBSD 7.0 (GENERIC.201509250726Z) amd64
       gcc --version
       gcc (nb2 20150115) 4.8.4
       clang --version
       clang version 3.6.2 (tags/RELEASE_362/final)
       Target: x86_64--netbsd
       Thread model: posix


      /usr/include/x86/float.h defines as LDBL_MIN as 3.3621031431120935063E-4932L And this value is greater than printf result.

      February 06, 2019

      Stack Overflow Disabling/Enabling interrupts on x86 architectures

      I am using NetBSD 5.1 for x86 systems. While studying some driver related code, I see that we use splraise and spllower to block or allow interrupts. I searched some of the mechanisms on internet to understand how these mechanisms work in reality. Did not get any real info on that.

      When I disassembled I got the mechanism but still do not understand how all these assembly instruction yield me the result. I know x86 instruction individually, but not how the whole stuff works in its entirety.

      Need your help in understanding its principles for x86 system. I understand that we need to disable Interrupt Enable (IE) bit, but this assembly seems to be doing more than just this work. Need help.

        (gdb) x/50i splraise
         0xc0100d40:  mov    0x4(%esp),%edx
         0xc0100d44:  mov    %fs:0x214,%eax
         0xc0100d4a:  cmp    %edx,%eax
         0xc0100d4c:  ja     0xc0100d55
         0xc0100d4e:  mov    %edx,%fs:0x214
         0xc0100d55:  ret
         0xc0100d56:  lea    0x0(%esi),%esi
         0xc0100d59:  lea    0x0(%edi,%eiz,1),%edi
         (gdb) p spllower
         $38 = {<text variable, no debug info>} 0xc0100d60
         0xc0100d60:  mov    0x4(%esp),%ecx
         0xc0100d64:  mov    %fs:0x214,%edx
         0xc0100d6b:  cmp    %edx,%ecx
         0xc0100d6d:  push   %ebx
         0xc0100d6e:  jae,pn 0xc0100d8f
         0xc0100d71:  mov    %fs:0x210,%eax
         0xc0100d77:  test   %eax,%fs:0x244(,%ecx,4)
         0xc0100d7f:  mov    %eax,%ebx
         0xc0100d81:  jne,pn 0xc0100d91
         0xc0100d84:  cmpxchg8b %fs:0x210
         0xc0100d8c:  jne,pn 0xc0100d71
         0xc0100d8f:  pop    %ebx
         0xc0100d90:  ret
         0xc0100d91:  pop    %ebx
         0xc0100d92:  jmp    0xc0100df0
         0xc0100d97:  mov    %esi,%esi
         0xc0100d99:  lea    0x0(%edi,%eiz,1),%edi
         0xc0100da0:  mov    0x4(%esp),%ecx
         0xc0100da4:  mov    %fs:0x214,%edx
         0xc0100dab:  cmp    %edx,%ecx
         0xc0100dad:  push   %ebx
         0xc0100dae:  jae,pn 0xc0100dcf
         0xc0100db1:  mov    %fs:0x210,%eax
         0xc0100db7:  test   %eax,%fs:0x244(,%ecx,4)
         0xc0100dbf:  mov    %eax,%ebx
         0xc0100dc1:  jne,pn 0xc0100dd1
         0xc0100dc4:  cmpxchg8b %fs:0x210
         0xc0100dcc:  jne,pn 0xc0100db1
         0xc0100dcf:  pop    %ebx
         0xc0100dd0:  ret
         0xc0100dd1:  pop    %ebx
         0xc0100dd2:  jmp    0xc0100df0
         0xc0100dd7:  mov    %esi,%esi
         0xc0100dd9:  lea    0x0(%edi,%eiz,1),%edi
         0xc0100de0:  nop
         0xc0100de1:  jmp    0xc0100df0

      The code seems to be using a helper function cx8_spllower starting at address 0xc0100da0.

      January 25, 2019

      Amitai Schlair DevOpsDays NYC: Run Your @wn Email Server!

      In late January, I was at DevOpsDays NYC in midtown Manhattan to present Run Your @wn Email Server!

      My abstract:

      When we’re responsible for production, it can be hard to find room to learn. That’s why I run my own email server. It’s still “production” — if it stays down, that’s pretty bad — but I own all the decisions, take more risks, and have learned lots. And so can you! Come see why and how to get started.

      With one command, install famously secure email software. A couple more and it’s running. A few more and it’s encrypted. Twiddle your DNS, watch the mail start coming in, and start feeling responsible for a production service in a way that web hosting can’t match.

      January 07, 2019

      Amitai Schlair 2018Q4 qmail updates in pkgsrc

      Happy 2019! Another three months, another stable branch for pkgsrc, the practical cross-platform Unix package manager. I’ve shipped quite a few improvements for qmail users in our 2018Q4 release. In three sentences:

      1. qmail-run gains TLS, SPF, IPv6, SMTP recipient checks, and many other sensible defaults.
      2. Most qmail-related packages — including the new ones used by qmail-run — are available on most pkgsrc platforms.
      3. rc.d-boot starts rc.conf-enabled pkgsrc services at boot time on many platforms.

      In one:

      It’s probably easy for you to run qmail now.

      On this basis, at my DevOpsDays NYC talk in a few weeks, I’ll be recommending that everyone try it.

      Try it

      Here’s a demo on CentOS 7, using binary packages:

      The main command I ran:

      $ sudo env PKG_RCD_SCRIPTS=yes pkgin -y install qmail-run rc.d-boot

      Here’s another demo on Debian 9, building from source packages:

      The commands I ran:

      $ cd ...pkgsrc/mail/qmail-run && make PKG_RCD_SCRIPTS=yes install
      $ cd ../../pkgtools/rc.d-boot && make PKG_RCD_SCRIPTS=yes install

      These improvements were made possible by acceptutils, my redesigned TLS and SMTP AUTH implementation that obviates the need for several large and conflicting patches. Further improvements are expected.

      Here’s the full changelog for qmail as packaged in pkgsrc-2018Q4.




      September 15, 2018

      Amitai Schlair Coding Tour Summer 2018: Conclusion

      After my fourth and final tour stop, we decamped to Mallorca for a week. With no upcoming workshops to polish and no upcoming plans to finalize, the laptop stayed home. Just each other, a variety of beaches, and the annual Les Festes del Rei En Jaume that Bekki and I last saw two years ago on our honeymoon. The parade was perhaps a bit much for Taavi.

      Looking away

      The just-released episode 99 of Agile for Humans includes some reflections (starting around 50 minutes in) from partway through my coding tour. As our summer in Germany draws to a close, I’d like to reflect on the tour as a whole.

      Annual training

      I’ve made a habit of setting aside time, attention, and money each year for focused learning. My most recent trainings, all formative and memorable:

      I hoped Schleier, Coding Tour would fit the bill for 2018. It has.

      Geek joy

      At the outset, I was asked how I’d know whether the tour had gone well. My response: “It’s a success if I get to meet a bunch of people in a bunch of places and we have fun programming together.”

      I got to program with a bunch of people in a bunch of places. We had fun doing it. Success!

      New technologies

      My first tour stop offered such an ecumenical mix of languages, tools, and techniques that I began writing down each new technology I encountered. I’m glad I started at the beginning. Even so, this list of things that were new or mostly new to me is probably incomplete:

      In the moment, learning new technologies was a source of geek joy. In the aggregate, it’s professionally useful. I think the weight clients tend to place on consultants needing to be expert in their tech stack is dangerously misplaced, but it doesn’t matter what I think if they won’t bring me in. Any chance for me to broaden my tech background is a chance for a future client to take advantage of all the other reasons I can be valuable to them.


      As Schmonz’s Theorem predicts, code-touring is both similar to and different from consulting.

      When consulting, I expect most of my learning to be meta: the second loop (at least) of double-loop learning. When touring, I became reacquainted with the simple joys of the first loop, spending all day learning new things to be able to do. It often felt like play.

      When consulting, I initially find myself being listened to in a peculiar way, my words being heard and measured carefully for evidence of my real intentions. My first tasks are to demonstrate that I can be trusted and that I can be useful, not necessarily in that (or any) order. Accomplishing this as a programmer on tour felt easier than usual.

      When I’m consulting, not everyone I encounter wants me there. Some offer time and attention because they feel obligated. On this tour, even though some folks were surprised to find out their employer wasn’t paying me anything, I sensed people were sharing their time and attention with me out of curiosity and generosity. I believe I succeeded in making myself trusted and useful to each of them, and the conversation videos and written testimonials help me hold the belief.

      Professional development

      With so much practice designing and facilitating group activities, so much information-rich feedback from participants, and so many chances to try again soon, I’ve leveled up as a facilitator. I was comfortable with my skills, abilities, and material before; I’m even more comfortable now. In my tour’s final public meetup, I facilitated one of my legacy code exercises for three simultaneous mobs. It went pretty well — in large part because of the participants, but also because of my continually developing skill at designing and facilitating learning experiences.

      As a consultant, it’s a basic survival skill to quickly orient myself in new problem spaces. As a coach, my superpower might be that I help others quickly orient themselves in their problem spaces. Visiting many teams at many companies, I got lots of practice at both. These areas of strength for me are now stronger, the better with which to serve my next clients.

      On several occasions I asked mobs not to bother explaining the current context to me before starting the timer. My hypothesis was, all the context I’d need would reveal itself through doing the work and asking a question or two along the way. (One basis among many for this hypothesis: what happened when I showed up late to one of Lennart Fridén’s sessions at this spring’s Mob Programming Conference and everyone else had already read the manual for our CPU.) I think there was one scenario where this didn’t work extremely well, but my memory’s fuzzy — have I mentioned meeting a whole bunch of people at a whole bunch of workplaces, meetups, and conferences? — so I’ll have to report the details when I rediscover it.

      You can do this too, and I can help

      When designing my tour, I sought advice from several people who’d gone on one. (Along the way I met several more, including Ivan Sanchez at SPA in London and Daniel Temme at SoCraTes in Soltau.)

      If you’re wondering whether a coding tour is something you want to do, or how to make it happen, get in touch. I’m happy to listen and offer my suggestions.

      What’s next for me, and you can help

      Like what I’m doing? Want more of it in your workplace?

      I offer short, targeted engagements in the New York metro area — coaching, consulting, and training — co-designed with you to meet your organization’s needs.

      More at


      Yes, lots.

      It’s been a splendid set of privileges to have the free time to go on tour, to have organizations in several countries interested to have me code with them, and to meet so many people who care about what I care about when humans develop software together.

      Five years ago I was discovering the existence of a set of communities of shared values in software development and my need to feel connected to them. Today I’m surer than ever that I’ve needed this connection and that I’ve found it.

      Thanks to the people who hosted me for a week at their employer: Patrick Drechsler at MATHEMA/Redheads in Erlangen, Alex Schladebeck at BREDEX in Braunschweig, Barney Dellar at Canon Medical Research in Edinburgh, and Thorsten Brunzendorf at codecentric in Nürnberg and München. And thanks to these companies for being willing to take a chance on bringing in an itinerant programmer for a visit.

      Thanks and apologies in equal measure to Richard Groß, who did all the legwork to have me visit MaibornWolff in Frankfurt, only to have me cancel at just about the last minute. At least we got to enjoy each other’s company at Agile Coach Camp Germany and SoCraTes (the only two people to attend both!).

      Thanks to David Heath at the UK’s Government Digital Service for inviting me to join them on extremely short notice when I had a free day in London, and to Olaf Lewitz for making the connection.

      Thanks to the meetups and conferences where I was invited to present: Mallorca Software Craft, SPA Software in Practice, pkgsrcCon, Hackerkegeln, JUG Ostfalen, Lean Agile Edinburgh, NEBytes, and Munich Software Craft. And thanks to Agile Coach Camp Germany and SoCraTes for the open spaces I did my part to fill.

      Thanks to Marc Burgauer, Jens Schauder, and Jutta Eckstein for making time to join me for a meal. Thanks to Zeb Ford-Reitz, Barney Dellar, and their respective spice for inviting me into their respective homes for dinner.

      Thanks to J.B. Rainsberger for simple, actionable advice on making it easy for European companies to reimburse my expenses, and more broadly on the logistics of going on European consulting-and-speaking tours when one is from elsewhere. (BTW, his next tour begins soon.)

      Thanks all over again to everyone who helped me design and plan the tour, most notably Dr. Sal Freudenberg, Llewellyn Falco, and Nicole Rauch.

      Thanks to Woody Zuill, Bryan Beecham, and Tim Bourguignon for that serendipitous conversation in the park in London. Thanks to Tim for having been there in the park with me. (No thanks to Woody for waiting till we’d left London before arriving. At least David Heath and GDS got to see him. Hmph.)

      Thanks to Lisi Hocke for making my wish a reality: that her testing tour and my coding tour would intersect. As a developer, I have so much to learn about testing and so few chances to learn from the best. She made it happen. A perfect ending for my tour.

      Thanks to Ryan Ripley for having me on Agile for Humans a couple more times as the tour progressed. I can’t say enough about what Ryan and his show have done for me, so this’ll have to be enough.

      Thanks to everyone else who helped draw special attention to my tour when I was seeking companies to visit, most notably Kent Beck. It really did help.

      Another reason companies cited for inviting me: my micropodcast, Agile in 3 Minutes. Thanks to Johanna Rothman, Andrea Goulet, Lanette Creamer, Alex Harms, and Jessica Kerr for your wonderful guest episodes. You’ve done me and our listeners a kindness. I trust it will come back to you.

      Thank you to my family for supporting my attempts at growth, especially when I so clearly need it.

      Finally, thanks to all of you for following along and for helping me find the kind of consulting work I’m best at, close to home in New York. You can count on me continuing to learn things and continuing to share them with you.


      March 17, 2018

      Hubert Feyrer The adventure of rebuilding g4u from source
      I was asked by a long-time g4u user on help with rebuilding g4u from sources. After pointing at the instructions on the homepage, we figured out that a few lose odds and ends didin't match. After bouncing some advices back and forth, I ventured into the frabjous joy of starting a rebuild from scratch, and quick enough ran into some problems, too.

      Usually I cross-compile g4u from Mac OS X, but for the fun of it I did it on NetBSD (7.0-stable branch, amd64 architecture in VMware Fusion) this time. After waiting forever on the CVS checkout, I found that empty directories were not removed - that's what you get if you have -P in your ~/.cvsrc file.

      I already had the hint that the "g4u-build" script needed a change to have "G4U_BUILD_KERNEL=true".

      From there, things went almost smooth: building indicated a few files that popped up "variable may be used uninitialized" errors, and which -- thanks to -Werror -- bombed out the build. Fixing was easy, and I have no idea why that built for me on the release. I have sent a patch with the required changes to the g4u-help mailing list. (After fixing that I apparently got unsubscribed from my own support mailing list - thank you very much, Sourceforge ;)).

      After those little hassles, the build worked fine, and gave me the floppy disk and ISO images that I expected:

      >       ls -l `pwd`/g4u*fs
      >       -rw-r--r--  2 feyrer  staff  1474560 Mar 17 19:27 /home/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-g4u.v3-deOliviera/src/distrib/i386/g4u/g4u1.fs
      >       -rw-r--r--  2 feyrer  staff  1474560 Mar 17 19:27 /home/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-g4u.v3-deOliviera/src/distrib/i386/g4u/g4u2.fs
      >       -rw-r--r--  2 feyrer  staff  1474560 Mar 17 19:27 /home/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-g4u.v3-deOliviera/src/distrib/i386/g4u/g4u3.fs
      >       -rw-r--r--  2 feyrer  staff  1474560 Mar 17 19:27 /home/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-g4u.v3-deOliviera/src/distrib/i386/g4u/g4u4.fs
      >       ls -l `pwd`/g4u.iso
      >       -rw-r--r--  2 feyrer  staff  6567936 Mar 17 19:27 /home/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-g4u.v3-deOliviera/src/distrib/i386/g4u/g4u.iso
      >       ls -l `pwd`/g4u-kernel.gz
      >       -rw-r?r--  1 feyrer  staff  6035680 Mar 17 19:27 /home/feyrer/work/NetBSD/cvs/src-g4u.v3-deOliviera/src/distrib/i386/g4u/g4u-kernel.gz 
      Next steps are to confirm the above changes as working from my faithful tester, and then look into how to merge this into the build instructions .

      January 12, 2018

      Super User What is the default File System in NetBSD? What are it's benefits and shortcommings?

      I spent some time looking through the documentation, but honestly, I have not found any good answer.

      I understand NetBSD supports many FS types as USER SPACE, but I would like to know what is the default FS created by the installer, and the one which I could boot from.

      January 04, 2018

      Hubert Feyrer NetBSD 7.1.1 released
      On December 22nd, NetBSD 7.1.1 was released as premature christmas present, see the release annoucement.

      NetBSD 7.1.1 is the first update with security and critical fixes for the NetBSD 7.1 branch. Those include a number of fixes for security advisories, kernel and userland.

      Hubert Feyrer New year, new security advisories!
      So things have become a bit silent here, which is due to reallife - my apologies. Still, I'd like to wish everyone following this here a Happy New Year 2018! And with this, a few new security advisories have been published:
      Hubert Feyrer 34C3 talk: Are all BSDs created equally?
      I haven't seen this mentioned on the NetBSD mailing lists, and this may be of interest to some - there was a talk about security bugs in the various BSDs at the 34th Chaos Communication Congress:

      In summary, many reasons for bugs are shown in many areas of the kernel (system calls, file systems, network stack, compat layer, ...), and what has happened after they were made known to the projects.

      As a hint, NetBSD still has a number of Security Advisories to publish, it seems. Anyone wants to help out the security team? :-)

      November 03, 2017

      Super User Install Linux on Old AirPort Extreme?

      I have a very old AirPort Extreme, the A1408. Is it possible to install Linux on it, using the AirPort functionally as a hard disk, and then boot from that? I have also heard that AirPorts run NetBSD. Can you boot into that and run commands?

      June 22, 2017

      Server Fault How to log ssh client connection/command?

      I would like to know how i could log SSH command lines a user is using on a server. For exemple, if the user Alex on my server is doing the following set of commands :

      $ cd /tmp
      $ touch myfile
      $ ssh [email protected]
      $ ssh [email protected]
      $ vim anotherfile
      $ ssh [email protected]

      I would like to log the ssh commands used on the server in a file which looks like :

      [2014-07-25 10:10:10] Alex : ssh [email protected]
      [2014-07-25 10:18:20] Alex : ssh [email protected]
      [2014-07-25 11:15:10] Alex : ssh [email protected]

      I don't care what he did during his ssh session, i just want to know WHEN and TO WHERE he made a connection to another server.

      The user is not using bash and i would like to avoid manipulating .bash_history anyway as the user can modify it.

      Any clue on this ?

      Thank you :)

      edit : to be more specific :

      a user connects to a server A and then connects from the server A to server B. I want to track down to which server he connects through ssh from server A.

      June 08, 2017

      Hubert Feyrer g4u 2.6 released
      After a five-year period for beta-testing and updating, I have finally released g4u 2.6. With its origins in 1999, I'd like to say: Happy 18th Birthday, g4u!

      About g4u: g4u ("ghosting for unix") is a NetBSD-based bootfloppy/CD-ROM that allows easy cloning of PC harddisks to deploy a common setup on a number of PCs using FTP. The floppy/CD offers two functions. The first is to upload the compressed image of a local harddisk to a FTP server, the other is to restore that image via FTP, uncompress it and write it back to disk. Network configuration is fetched via DHCP. As the harddisk is processed as an image, any filesystem and operating system can be deployed using g4u. Easy cloning of local disks as well as partitions is also supported.

      The past: When I started g4u, I had the task to install a number of lab machines with a dual-boot of Windows NT and NetBSD. The hype was about Microsoft's "Zero Administration Kit" (ZAK) then, but that did barely work for the Windows part - file transfers were slow, depended on the clients' hardware a lot (requiring fiddling with MS DOS network driver disks), and on the ZAK server the files for installing happened do disappear for no good reason every now and then. Not working well, and leaving out NetBSD (and everything elase), I created g4u. This gave me the (relative) pain of getting things working once, but with the option to easily add network drivers as they appeared in NetBSD (and oh they did!), plus allowed me to install any operating system.

      The present: We've used g4u successfully in our labs then, booting from CDROM. I also got many donations from public and private instituations plus comanies from many sectors, indicating that g4u does make a difference.

      In the mean time, the world has changed, and CDROMs aren't used that much any more. Network boot and USB sticks are today's devices of choice, cloning of a full disk without knowing its structure has both advantages but also disadvantages, and g4u's user interface is still command-line based with not much space for automation. For storage, FTP servers are nice and fast, but alternatives like SSH/SFTP, NFS, iSCSI and SMB for remote storage plus local storage (back to fun with filesystems, anyone? avoiding this was why g4u was created in the first place!) should be considered these days. Further aspects include integrity (checksums), confidentiality (encryption). This leaves a number of open points to address either by future releases, or by other products.

      The future: At this point, my time budget for g4u is very limited. I welcome people to contribute to g4u - g4u is Open Source for a reason. Feel free to get back to me for any changes that you want to contribute!

      The changes: Major changes in g4u 2.6 include:

      The software: Please see the g4u homepage's download section on how to get and use g4u.


      February 23, 2017

      Julio Merino Easy pkgsrc on macOS with pkg_comp 2.0

      This is a tutorial to guide you through the shiny new pkg_comp 2.0 on macOS using the macOS-specific self-installer.

      Goals: to use pkg_comp 2.0 to build a binary repository of all the packages you are interested in; to keep the repository fresh on a daily basis; and to use that repository with pkgin to maintain your macOS system up-to-date and secure.

      This tutorial is specifically targeted at macOS and relies on the macOS-specific self-installer package. For a more generic tutorial that uses the pkg_comp-cron package in pkgsrc, see Keeping NetBSD up-to-date with pkg_comp 2.0.

      Getting started

      Start by downloading and installing OSXFUSE 3 and then download the standalone macOS installer package for pkg_comp. To find the right file, navigate to the releases page on GitHub, pick the most recent release, and download the file with a name of the form pkg_comp-<version>-macos.pkg.

      Then double-click on the file you downloaded and follow the installation instructions. You will be asked for your administrator password because the installer has to place files under /usr/local/; note that pkg_comp requires root privileges anyway to run (because it uses chroot(8) internally), so you will have to grant permission at some point or another.

      The installer modifies the default PATH (by creating /etc/paths.d/pkg_comp) to include pkg_comp’s own installation directory and pkgsrc’s installation prefix. Restart your shell sessions to make this change effective, or update your own shell startup scripts accordingly if you don’t use the standard ones.

      Lastly, make sure to have Xcode installed in the standard /Applications/ location and that all components required to build command-line apps are available. Tip: try running cc from the command line and seeing if it prints its usage message.

      Adjusting the configuration

      The macOS flavor of pkg_comp is configured with an installation prefix of /usr/local/, which means that the executable is located in /usr/local/sbin/pkg_comp and the configuration files are in /usr/local/etc/pkg_comp/. This is intentional to keep the pkg_comp installation separate from your pkgsrc installation so that it can run no matter what state your pkgsrc installation is in.

      The configuration files are as follows:

      Note that these configuration files use the /var/pkg_comp/ directory as the dumping ground for: the pkgsrc tree, the downloaded distribution files, and the built binary packages. We will see references to this location later on.

      The cron job

      The installer configures a cron job that runs as root to invoke pkg_comp daily. The goal of this cron job is to keep your local packages repository up-to-date so that you can do binary upgrades at any time. You can edit the cron job configuration interactively by running sudo crontab -e.

      This cron job won’t have an effect until you have populated the list.txt file as described above, so it’s safe to let it enabled until you have configured pkg_comp.

      If you want to disable the periodic builds, just remove the pkg_comp entry from the crontab.

      On slow machines, or if you are building a lot of packages, you may want to consider decreasing the build frequency from @daily to @weekly.

      Sample configuration

      Here is what the configuration looks like on my Mac Mini as dumped by the config subcommand. Use this output to get an idea of what to expect. I’ll be using the values shown here in the rest of the tutorial:

      $ pkg_comp config
      AUTO_PACKAGES = autoconf automake bash colordiff dash emacs24-nox11 emacs25-nox11 fuse-bindfs fuse-sshfs fuse-unionfs gdb git-base git-docs glib2 gmake gnuls libtool-base lua52 mercurial mozilla-rootcerts mysql56-server pdksh pkg_developer pkgconf pkgin ruby-jekyll ruby-jekyll-archives ruby-jekyll-paginate scmcvs smartmontools sqlite3 tmux vim
      CVS_ROOT = :ext:[email protected]:/cvsroot
      CVS_TAG is undefined
      DISTDIR = /var/pkg_comp/distfiles
      EXTRA_MKCONF = /usr/local/etc/pkg_comp/
      FETCH_VCS = git
      GIT_BRANCH = trunk
      GIT_URL =
      LOCALBASE = /opt/pkg
      NJOBS = 4
      PACKAGES = /var/pkg_comp/packages
      PBULK_PACKAGES = /var/pkg_comp/pbulk-packages
      PKG_DBDIR = /opt/pkg/libdata/pkgdb
      PKGSRCDIR = /var/pkg_comp/pkgsrc
      SANDBOX_CONFFILE = /usr/local/etc/pkg_comp/sandbox.conf
      SYSCONFDIR = /opt/pkg/etc
      UPDATE_SOURCES = true
      VARBASE = /opt/pkg/var
      SANDBOX_ROOT = /var/pkg_comp/sandbox
      SANDBOX_TYPE = darwin-native

      Building your own packages by hand

      Now that you are fully installed and configured, you’ll build some stuff by hand to ensure the setup works before the cron job comes in.

      The simplest usage form, which involves full automation and assumes you have listed at least one package in list.txt, is something like this:

      $ sudo pkg_comp auto

      This trivially-looking command will:

      1. clone or update your copy of pkgsrc;
      2. create the sandbox;
      3. bootstrap pkgsrc and pbulk;
      4. use pbulk to build the given packages; and
      5. destroy the sandbox.

      After a successful invocation, you’ll be left with a collection of packages in the /var/pkg_comp/packages/ directory.

      If you’d like to restrict the set of packages to build during a manually-triggered build, provide those as arguments to auto. This will override the contents of AUTO_PACKAGES (which was derived from your list.txt file).

      But what if you wanted to invoke all stages separately, bypassing auto? The command above would be equivalent to:

      $ sudo pkg_comp fetch
      $ sudo pkg_comp sandbox-create
      $ sudo pkg_comp bootstrap
      $ sudo pkg_comp build <package names here>
      $ sudo pkg_comp sandbox-destroy

      Go ahead and play with these. You can also use the sandbox-shell command to interactively enter the sandbox. See pkg_comp(8) for more details.

      Lastly note that the root user will receive email messages if the periodic pkg_comp cron job fails, but only if it fails. That said, you can find the full logs for all builds, successful or not, under /var/pkg_comp/log/.

      Installing the resulting packages

      Now that you have built your first set of packages, you will want to install them. This is easy on macOS because you did not use pkgsrc itself to install pkg_comp.

      First, unpack the pkgsrc installation. You only have to do this once:

      $ cd /
      $ sudo tar xzvpf /var/pkg_comp/packages/bootstrap.tgz

      That’s it. You can now install any packages you like:

      $ PKG_PATH=file:///var/pkg_comp/packages/All sudo pkg_add pkgin <other package names>

      The command above assume you have restarted your shell to pick up the correct path to the pkgsrc installation. If the call to pkg_add fails because of a missing binary, try restarting your shell or explicitly running the binary as /opt/pkg/sbin/pkg_add.

      Keeping your system up-to-date

      Thanks to the cron job that builds your packages, your local repository under /var/pkg_comp/packages/ will always be up-to-date; you can use that to quickly upgrade your system with minimal downtime.

      Assuming you are going to use pkgtools/pkgin as recommended above (and why not?), configure your local repository:

      $ sudo /bin/sh -c "echo file:///var/pkg_comp/packages/All >>/opt/pkg/etc/pkgin/repositories.conf"

      And, from now on, all it takes to upgrade your system is:

      $ sudo pkgin update
      $ sudo pkgin upgrade


      February 18, 2017

      Julio Merino Keeping NetBSD up-to-date with pkg_comp 2.0

      This is a tutorial to guide you through the shiny new pkg_comp 2.0 on NetBSD.

      Goals: to use pkg_comp 2.0 to build a binary repository of all the packages you are interested in; to keep the repository fresh on a daily basis; and to use that repository with pkgin to maintain your NetBSD system up-to-date and secure.

      This tutorial is specifically targeted at NetBSD but should work on other platforms with some small changes. Expect, at the very least, a macOS-specific tutorial as soon as I create a pkg_comp standalone installer for that platform.

      Getting started

      First install the sysutils/sysbuild-user package and trigger a full build of NetBSD so that you get usable release sets for pkg_comp. See sysbuild(1) and pkg_info sysbuild-user for details on how to do so. Alternatively, download release sets from the FTP site and later tell pkg_comp where they are.

      Then install the pkgtools/pkg_comp-cron package. The rest of this tutorial assumes you have done so.

      Adjusting the configuration

      To use pkg_comp for periodic builds, you’ll need to do some minimal edits to the default configuration files. The files can be found directly under /var/pkg_comp/, which is pkg_comp-cron’s “home”:

      Lastly, review root’s crontab to ensure the job specification for pkg_comp is sane. On slow machines, or if you are building many packages, you will probably want to decrease the build frequency from @daily to @weekly.

      Sample configuration

      Here is what the configuration looks like on my NetBSD development machine as dumped by the config subcommand. Use this output to get an idea of what to expect. I’ll be using the values shown here in the rest of the tutorial:

      # pkg_comp -c /var/pkg_comp/pkg_comp.conf config
      AUTO_PACKAGES = autoconf automake bash colordiff dash emacs-nox11 git-base git-docs gmake gnuls lua52 mozilla-rootcerts pdksh pkg_comp-cron pkg_developer pkgin sqlite3 sudo sysbuild sysbuild-user sysupgrade tmux vim zsh
      CVS_ROOT = :ext:[email protected]:/cvsroot
      CVS_TAG is undefined
      DISTDIR = /var/pkg_comp/distfiles
      EXTRA_MKCONF = /var/pkg_comp/
      FETCH_VCS = cvs
      GIT_BRANCH = trunk
      GIT_URL =
      LOCALBASE = /usr/pkg
      NJOBS = 2
      PACKAGES = /var/pkg_comp/packages
      PBULK_PACKAGES = /var/pkg_comp/pbulk-packages
      PKG_DBDIR = /usr/pkg/libdata/pkgdb
      PKGSRCDIR = /var/pkg_comp/pkgsrc
      SANDBOX_CONFFILE = /var/pkg_comp/sandbox.conf
      SYSCONFDIR = /etc
      UPDATE_SOURCES = true
      VARBASE = /var
      NETBSD_NATIVE_RELEASEDIR = /home/sysbuild/release/amd64
      NETBSD_RELEASE_RELEASEDIR = /home/sysbuild/release/amd64
      NETBSD_RELEASE_SETS is undefined
      SANDBOX_ROOT = /var/pkg_comp/sandbox
      SANDBOX_TYPE = netbsd-release

      Building your own packages by hand

      Now that you are fully installed and configured, you’ll build some stuff by hand to ensure the setup works before the cron job comes in.

      The simplest usage form, which involves full automation, is something like this:

      # pkg_comp -c /var/pkg_comp/pkg_comp.conf auto

      This trivially-looking command will:

      1. checkout or update your copy of pkgsrc;
      2. create the sandbox;
      3. bootstrap pkgsrc and pbulk;
      4. use pbulk to build the given packages; and
      5. destroy the sandbox.

      After a successful invocation, you’ll be left with a collection of packages in the directory you set in PACKAGES, which in the default pkg_comp-cron installation is /var/pkg_comp/packages/.

      If you’d like to restrict the set of packages to build during a manually-triggered build, provide those as arguments to auto. This will override the contents of AUTO_PACKAGES (which was derived from your list.txt file).

      But what if you wanted to invoke all stages separately, bypassing auto? The command above would be equivalent to:

      # pkg_comp -c /var/pkg_comp/pkg_comp.conf fetch
      # pkg_comp -c /var/pkg_comp/pkg_comp.conf sandbox-create
      # pkg_comp -c /var/pkg_comp/pkg_comp.conf bootstrap
      # pkg_comp -c /var/pkg_comp/pkg_comp.conf build <package names here>
      # pkg_comp -c /var/pkg_comp/pkg_comp.conf sandbox-destroy

      Go ahead and play with these. You can also use the sandbox-shell command to interactively enter the sandbox. See pkg_comp(8) for more details.

      Lastly note that the root user will receive email messages if the periodic pkg_comp cron job fails, but only if it fails. That said, you can find the full logs for all builds, successful or not, under /var/pkg_comp/log/.

      Installing the resulting packages

      Now that you have built your first set of packages, you will want to install them. On NetBSD, the default pkg_comp-cron configuration produces a set of packages for /usr/pkg so you have to wipe your existing packages first to avoid build mismatches.

      WARNING: Yes, you really have to wipe your packages. pkg_comp currently does not recognize the package tools that ship with the NetBSD base system (i.e. it bootstraps pkgsrc unconditionally, including bmake), which means that the newly-built packages won’t be compatible with the ones you already have. Avoid any trouble by starting afresh.

      To clean your system, do something like this:

      # ... ensure your login shell lives in /bin! ...
      # pkg_delete -r -R "*"
      # mv /usr/pkg/etc /root/etc.old  # Backup any modified files.
      # rm -rf /usr/pkg /var/db/pkg*

      Now, rebootstrap pkgsrc and reinstall any packages you previously had:

      # cd /
      # tar xzvpf /var/pkg_comp/packages/bootstrap.tgz
      # echo "pkg_admin=/usr/pkg/sbin/pkg_admin" >>/etc/pkgpath.conf
      # echo "pkg_info=/usr/pkg/sbin/pkg_info" >>/etc/pkgpath.conf
      # export PATH=/usr/pkg/bin:/usr/pkg/sbin:${PATH}
      # export PKG_PATH=file:///var/pkg_comp/packages/All
      # pkg_add pkgin pkg_comp-cron <other package names>

      Finally, reconfigure any packages where you had have previously made custom edits. Use the backup in /root/etc.old to properly update the corresponding files in /etc. I doubt you made a ton of edits so this should be easy.

      IMPORTANT: Note that the last command in this example includes pkgin and pkg_comp-cron. You should install these first to ensure you can continue with the next steps in this tutorial.

      Keeping your system up-to-date

      If you paid attention when you installed the pkg_comp-cron package, you should have noticed that this configured a cron job to run pkg_comp daily. This means that your packages repository under /var/pkg_comp/packages/ will always be up-to-date so you can use that to quickly upgrade your system with minimal downtime.

      Assuming you are going to use pkgtools/pkgin (and why not?), configure your local repository:

      # echo 'file:///var/pkg_comp/packages/All' >>/etc/pkgin/repositories.conf

      And, from now on, all it takes to upgrade your system is:

      # pkgin update
      # pkgin upgrade


      February 17, 2017

      Julio Merino Introducing pkg_comp 2.0 (and sandboxctl 1.0)

      After many (many) years in the making, pkg_comp 2.0 and its companion sandboxctl 1.0 are finally here!

      Read below for more details on this launch. I will publish detailed step-by-step tutorials on setting up periodic package rebuilds in separate posts.

      What are these tools?

      pkg_comp is an automation tool to build pkgsrc binary packages inside a chroot-based sandbox. The main goal is to fully automate the process and to produce clean and reproducible packages. A secondary goal is to support building binary packages for a different system than the one doing the builds: e.g. building packages for NetBSD/i386 6.0 from a NetBSD/amd64 7.0 host.

      The highlights of pkg_comp 2.0, compared to the 1.x series, are: multi-platform support, including NetBSD, FreeBSD, Linux, and macOS; use of pbulk for efficient builds; management of the pkgsrc tree itself via CVS or Git; and a more robust and modern codebase.

      sandboxctl is an automation tool to create and manage chroot-based sandboxes on a variety of operating systems. sandboxctl is the backing tool behind pk_comp. sandboxctl hides the details of creating a functional chroot sandbox on all supported operating systems; in some cases, like building a NetBSD sandbox using release sets, things are easy; but in others, like on macOS, they are horrifyingly difficult and brittle.

      Storytelling time

      pkg_comp’s history is a long one. pkg_comp 1.0 first appeared in pkgsrc on September 6th, 2002 as the pkgtools/pkg_comp package in pkgsrc. As of this writing, the 1.x series are at version 1.38 and have received contributions from a bunch of pkgsrc developers and external users; even more, the tool was featured in the BSD Hacks book back in 2004.

      This is a long time for a shell script to survive in its rudimentary original form: pkg_comp 1.x is now a teenager at its 14 years of age and is possibly one of my longest-living pieces of software still in use.

      Motivation for the 2.x rewrite

      For many of these years, I have been wanting to rewrite pkg_comp to support other operating systems. This all started when I first got a Mac in 2005, at which time pkgsrc already supported Darwin but there was no easy mechanism to manage package updates. What would happen—and still happens to this day!—is that, once in a while, I’d realize that my packages were out of date (read: insecure) so I’d wipe the whole pkgsrc installation and start from scratch. Very inconvenient; I had to automate that properly.

      Thus the main motivation behind the rewrite was primarily to support macOS because this was, and still is, my primary development platform. The secondary motivation came after writing sysbuild in 2012, which trivially configured daily builds of the NetBSD base system from cron; I wanted the exact same thing for my packages.

      One, two… no, three rewrites

      The first rewrite attempt was sometime in 2006, soon after I learned Haskell in school. Why Haskell? Just because that was the new hotness in my mind and it seemed like a robust language to drive a pretty tricky automation process. That rewrite did not go very far, and that’s possibly for the better: relying on Haskell would have decreased the portability of the tool, made it hard to install it, and guaranteed to alienate contributors.

      The second rewrite attempt started sometime in 2010, about a year after I joined Google as an SRE. This was after I became quite familiar with Python at work, wanting to use the language to rewrite this tool. That experiment didn’t go very far though, but I can’t remember why… probably because I was busy enough at work and creating Kyua.

      The third and final rewrite attempt started in 2013 while I had a summer intern and I had a little existential crisis. The year before I had written sysbuild and shtk, so I figured recreating pkg_comp using the foundations laid out by these tools would be easy. And it was… to some extent.

      Getting the barebones of a functional tool took only a few weeks, but that code was far from being stable, portable, and publishable. Life and work happened, so this fell through the cracks… until late last year, when I decided it was time to close this chapter so I could move on to some other project ideas. To create the focus and free time required to complete this project, I had to shift my schedule to start the day at 5am instead of 7am—and, many weeks later, the code is finally here and I’m still keeping up with this schedule.

      Granted: this third rewrite is not a fancy one, but it wasn’t meant to be. pkg_comp 2.0 is still written in shell, just as 1.x was, but this is a good thing because bootstrapping on all supported platforms is easy. I have to confess that I also considered Go recently after playing with it last year but I quickly let go of that thought: at some point I had to ship the 2.0 release, and 10 years since the inception of this rewrite was about time.

      The launch of 2.0

      On February 12th, 2017, the authoritative sources of pkg_comp 1.x were moved from pkgtools/pkg_comp to pkgtools/pkg_comp1 to make room for the import of 2.0. Yes, the 1.x series only existed in pkgsrc and the 2.x series exist as a standalone project on GitHub.

      And here we are. Today, February 17th, 2017, pkg_comp 2.0 saw the light!

      Why sandboxctl as a separate tool?

      sandboxctl is the supporting tool behind pkg_comp, taking care of all the logic involved in creating chroot-based sandboxes on a variety of operating systems. Some are easy, like building a NetBSD sandbox using release sets, and others are horrifyingly difficult like macOS.

      In pkg_comp 1.x, this logic used to be bundled right into the pkg_comp code, which made it pretty much impossible to generalize for portability. With pkg_comp 2.x, I decided to split this out into a separate tool to keep responsibilities isolated. Yes, the integration between the two tools is a bit tricky, but allows for better testability and understandability. Lastly, having sandboxctl as a standalone tool, instead of just a separate code module, gives you the option of using it for your own sandboxing needs.

      I know, I know; the world has moved onto containerization and virtual machines, leaving chroot-based sandboxes as a very rudimentary thing… but that’s all we’ve got in NetBSD, and pkg_comp targets primarily NetBSD. Note, though, that because pkg_comp is separate from sandboxctl, there is nothing preventing adding different sandboxing backends to pkg_comp.


      Installation is still a bit convoluted unless you are on one of the tier 1 NetBSD platforms or you already have pkgsrc up and running. For macOS in particular, I plan on creating and shipping a installer image that includes all of pkg_comp dependencies—but I did not want to block the first launch on this.

      For now though, you need to download and install the latest source releases of shtk, sandboxctl, and pkg_comp—in this order; pass the --with-atf=no flag to the configure scripts to cut down the required dependencies. On macOS, you will also need OSXFUSE and the bindfs file system.

      If you are already using pkgsrc, you can install the pkgtools/pkg_comp package to get the basic tool and its dependencies in place, or you can install the wrapper pkgtools/pkg_comp-cron package to create a pre-configured environment with a daily cron job to run your builds. See the package’s MESSAGE (with pkg_info pkg_comp-cron) for more details.


      Both pkg_comp and sandboxctl are fully documented in manual pages. See pkg_comp(8), sandboxctl(8), pkg_comp.conf(5) and sandbox.conf(5) for plenty of additional details.

      As mentioned at the beginning of the post, I plan on publishing one or more tutorials explaining how to bootstrap your pkgsrc installation using pkg_comp on, at least, NetBSD and macOS. Stay tuned.

      And, if you need support or find anything wrong, please let me know by filing bugs in the corresponding GitHub projects: jmmv/pkg_comp and jmmv/sandboxctl.

      February 09, 2017

      BSD Talk bsdtalk266 - The nodes take over
      We became tired of waiting. File Info: 7Min, 3MB. Ogg Link:

      January 22, 2017

      Emile Heitor CPU temperature collectd report on NetBSD

      pkgsrc’s collectd does not support the thermal plugin, so in order to publish thermal information I had to use the exec plugin:

      LoadPlugin exec
      # more plugins

      <Plugin exec>
      Exec "nobody:nogroup" "/home/imil/bin/"

      And write this simple script that reads CPUs temperature from NetBSD’s envstat command:

      $ cat bin/ 


      while :
      envstat|awk '/cpu[0-9]/ {printf "%s %s\n",$1,$3}'|while read c t
      echo "PUTVAL ${hostname}/temperature/temperature-zone${c#cpu} interval=${interval} N:${t%%.*}"
      sleep ${interval}

      I then send those values to an influxdb server:

      LoadPlugin network
      # ...

      <Plugin network>
      Server "" "25826"

      And display them using grafana:

      grafana setup
      NetBSD temperature in grafana